Substantial contributions to the field of RCD have been made over the past 15 years. Most intriguing is a growing awareness of acquired RCD and its complications. Data have been published and are reviewed here in support of a possibility that APKD and RCD acquired during hemodialysis are premalignant lesions. More data are needed before the possibility can be confirmed or denied. The collection of these data is an immediate need in the field of RCD.