The activities of the enzymes ethanolamine ammonia-lyase, CoA-dependent and CoA-independent aldehyde dehydrogenases, and isocitrate lyase were assayed in Escherichia coli which had been grown on various sources of carbon and nitrogen. Induction of ethanolamine ammonia-lyase and of maximal levels of both aldehyde dehydrogenases required the concerted effects of ethanolamine and vitamin (or coenzyme) B12. Molecular exclusion chromatography revealed that, in the absence of one or both co-inducers, two repressible isoenzymes of CoA-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase (mol. wts 900000 and 120000) were produced, these being replaced by two inducible isoenzymes (mol. wts 520000 and 370000) in the presence of both co-inducers. A similar inducible repressible series of isoenzymes was also observed for CoA-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase. No evidence was found for structural relationships between ethanolamine ammonia-lyase, CoA-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase and CoA-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase, but mutant and physiological studies demonstrated that the induction of the first two enzymes is under common control. Evidence is presented for the operation of a previously unreported pathway of ethanolamine metabolism in E. coli.