Pancreatic tissue obtained at subtotal pancreatectomy from 15 infants with persistent hypoglycaemia with hyperinsulinism, and autopsy specimens from 23 age-matched normoglycaemic controls, were studied with morphometric methods after immunocytochemical staining of the four main islet cell types (A, B, D and pancreatic polypeptide cells). In three cases, a focal lesion was detected by gross examination. Macroscopic or microscopic examination did not distinguish the 12 other cases from controls. As found previously, nesidioblastosis was not a specific feature of the pancreas in infantile hypoglycaemia, being observed in age-matched controls as well. In cases with hypoglycaemia the volume density of B cells was not significantly increased; that of the A cells was within normal range. The volume density of pancreatic polypeptide cells was markedly augmented and that of somatostatin cells was significantly decreased. The mean nuclear volume of the B cells was increased by 40% in cases with diffuse changes, but in cases with a focal lesion this increase was restricted to the abnormal area. This finding is of decisive importance for diagnosis and has therapeutic implications. The increase in B-cell nuclear size is thought to reflect an enhanced functional activity of these cells. On the other hand, the figures obtained for the volume density of B and D cells must be viewed with some reservation because degranulation may interfere with accurate detection of these cells.