Chromatographic analysis of poly(dT) replication activity in fresh yeast extracts showed that the activities required co-fractionate with the yeast DNA polymerase I. Since poly(dT) replication requires both a primase and a DNA polymerase, the results of the fractionation studies suggest that these two enzymes might exist as a complex in the yeast extract. Sucrose gradient analysis of concentrated purified yeast DNA polymerase I preparations demonstrates that the yeast DNA polymerase I does sediment as a complex with DNA primase activity. Two DNA polymerase I peptides estimated at 78,000 and 140,000 Da were found in the complex that were absent from the primase-free DNA polymerase fraction. Rabbit anti-yeast DNA polymerase I antibody inhibits DNA polymerase I but not DNA primase although rabbit antibodies are shown to remove DNA primase activity from solution by binding to the complex. Mouse monoclonal antibody to yeast DNA polymerase I binds to free yeast DNA polymerase I as well as the complex, but not to the free DNA primase activity. These results suggest that these two activities exist as a complex and reside on the different polypeptides. Replication of poly(dT) and single-stranded circular phage DNA by yeast DNA polymerase I and primase requires ATP and dNTPs. The size of the primer produced is 8 to 9 nucleotides in the presence of dNTPs and somewhat larger in the absence of dNTPs. Aphidicolin, an inhibitor of yeast DNA polymerase I, is not inhibitory to the yeast DNA primase activity. The primase activity is inhibited by adenosine 5'-(3-thio)tri-phosphate but not by alpha-amanitin. The association of yeast DNA polymerase I and yeast DNA primase can be demonstrated directly by isolation of the complex on a column containing yeast DNA polymerase I mouse monoclonal antibody covalently linked to Protein A-Sepharose. Both DNA polymerase I and DNA primase activities are retained by the column and can be eluted with 3.5 M MgCl2. Part of the primase activity can be dissociated from DNA polymerase on the column with 1 M MgCl2 and this free primase activity can be detected as poly(dT) replication activity in the presence of Escherichia coli polymerase I.