Effects of caloric restriction and weight loss on glycemic control, insulin release and resistance, and atherosclerotic risk in obese patients with type II diabetes mellitus

Am J Med. 1984 Jul;77(1):7-17. doi: 10.1016/0002-9343(84)90429-7.


This study was designed to determine: (1) the effectiveness and safety of protein-sparing fast and gastric bypass surgery for achieving weight reduction in obese patients with type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus); (2) the effects of these interventions on glycemic control; (3) the effects of weight loss on insulin secretion and action; and (4) the effects of treatment on atherosclerotic risk factors. Six patients consumed only a protein supplement (1.4 g/kg ideal body weight) for up to six months until a final weight below 120 percent of ideal body weight was achieved or weight loss ceased. Six patients underwent gastric bypass surgery. Both groups of patients were studied before and after treatment while consuming a balanced weight-maintaining diet. Both protein-sparing fast and gastric bypass surgery were safe and successful in the short term in producing weight loss. Both treatments improved glycemic control. Mean fasting plasma glucose values fell from 287 to 168 mg/dl (p less than 0.01). Mean total glycosylated hemoglobin values declined from 11.9 to 8.2 percent (p less than 0.01) (normal reference interval 5.85 to 8.85 percent). Patients who achieved a final weight below 125 percent of ideal body weight had significantly better post-treatment fasting plasma glucose values (130 versus 196 mg/dl, p less than 0.05) and total glycosylated hemoglobin values (6.8 versus 9.0, p less than 0.02) than those whose weight remained above 125 percent of ideal. In diet-treated patients, improved glycemic control occurred with caloric restriction alone prior to significant weight loss. Improved glycemic control was accompanied by decreased insulin resistance. Mean steady-state plasma glucose values fell from 377 to 208 mg/dl (p less than 0.008), and mean fasting insulin values fell from 31.0 to 17.0 microU/ml (p less than 0.004). Acute-phase insulin release, which was markedly impaired before treatment, did not improve even in patients who had post-treatment fasting plasma glucose values below 130 mg/dl. Significant improvements in atherosclerotic risk factors occurred. Mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values increased from 33.8 to 40.5 mg/dl (0.006 less than p less than 0.008), and factor VIII coagulant activity decreased from 194 to 140 percent (p less than 0.005). Serum fibrinogen also decreased (393 to 347 mg/dl, p = 0.08), although the decrease did not reach clinical significance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arteriosclerosis / etiology*
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Body Weight
  • Diabetes Mellitus / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus / therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diet, Reducing
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood*
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity*
  • Risk
  • Stomach / surgery


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin