Many of the actions previously attributed to pituitary-derived growth hormone are mediated by polypeptide growth factors. These include the insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II), which are members of the insulin family of proteins. We report here the chromosomal mapping of the human genes for IGF-I and IGF-II. IGF-II maps to the short arm of chromosome 11, which also contains the gene for insulin and the proto-oncogene c-Ha-ras1 (ref. 9). IGF-I maps to chromosome 12, which is evolutionarily related to chromosome 11 and carries the gene for the proto-oncogene c-Ki-ras2 (refs 10,44). We have also localized the human gene for an unrelated polypeptide hormone, epidermal growth factor, to chromosome 4q, in the same region as another specialized growth factor, T-cell growth factor. We speculate that these map assignments reflect the existence of gene families involved in growth control.