A monoclonal antibody to vimentin (RBA1) and a polyclonal antiserum to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were used in double labeling experiments to examine astrocyte intermediate filaments in development and wounding. RBA1 bound to radial glia in newborn rat parietal cortex that are predominantly anti-GFAP-negative. The RBA1-positive radial fibers disappeared by postnatal day 20 with the greatest rate of disappearance occurring between day 8 and day 15. Between birth and day 20, the anti-GFAP staining increased to the adult pattern in mature shaped astrocytes. Some overlay was observed between the binding patterns of the two antibodies. Stab wounds to cortical areas were made at a developmental time when there were normally no RBA1-positive astrocytes. RBA1-positivity was present in some astrocytes but only at the edges of the wounds. The distribution patterns of RBA1-positive cells led to hypotheses concerning the possible function of vimentin in astrocytes and its regulation during development and wounding.