Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) developed in a 45-year-old white male 2 years after cadaveric kidney transplantation while receiving combined immunosuppressive therapy with prednisone and azathioprine. Early clinical signs at presentation included ascites and tender hepatomegaly. The diagnosis of VOD was established at laparoscopy and by histological examination of liver biopsies. Azathioprine was discontinued. Gross ascites refractory to medical treatment and decreasing liver function required surgical treatment by portacaval shunt. Transient postoperative complications were hepatic encephalopathy and considerable hyperbilirubinaemia. 8 months later the patient is well, with stable renal function and no clinical signs of hepatic disease.