The demonstration of cell surface antigens on T cells, B cells and accessory cells in paraffin-embedded human tissues

J Immunol Methods. 1984 Dec 31;75(2):227-39. doi: 10.1016/0022-1759(84)90106-6.


This paper describes a method for processing fresh tissue that allows immunohistological analysis on paraffin sections. The method is based on the use of periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde fixation. The effects of variation in fixation time, concentration of paraformaldehyde, dehydration, clearing, wax embedding and enzyme treatment of cut sections were examined. An optimal processing procedure was established that retains good tissue morphology and allowed 21 out of 27 monoclonal antibodies tested to be used successfully on paraffin sections to identify all major cell subpopulations by their membrane antigenic characteristics. The value of this approach in studying the immunopathology of potentially dangerous infectious diseases and in leukaemia/lymphoma diagnosis is discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / immunology*
  • Antigens, Surface / analysis*
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Cell Membrane / immunology
  • HLA-DR Antigens
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II / analysis
  • Histological Techniques
  • Humans
  • Leprosy / immunology
  • Lymphocytes / cytology
  • Palatine Tonsil / immunology
  • Paraffin
  • Skin / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antigens, Surface
  • HLA-DR Antigens
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class II
  • Paraffin