We have studied the influence of streptomycin (Sm) on the kinetics and accuracy of translation by wild-type as well as Ram-mutant ribosomes in an in vitro system that mimics the performance characteristics of ribosomes in bacteria. It can be shown in this system that the accuracy of translation is made up of an initial selection step and one or more proofreading steps. The data show that the antibiotic has only a small influence on the initial selectivity step of wild-type or mutant ribosomes. Streptomycin stimulates the missense rate primarily by suppressing the proofreading of the ribosomes. The kinetic effects of Sm and of Ram alteration are not additive, but seem to be overlapping if not identical.