A case of early onset Bartter's syndrome associated with hydramnios, prematurity, hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis is reported. A literature review of Bartter's syndrome supports the hypothesis that the findings in this infant constitute a specific variant of Bartter's syndrome inherited in an autosomal recessive mode. Fetal polyuria in Bartter's syndrome leads to hydramnios, and the excess fluid causes premature birth. This variant of Bartter's syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis of hydramnios, especially if the woman has had previous hydramnios resulting in a perinatal death. The disorder responds to treatment with indomethacin.