A patient with an anaplastic (malignant) astrocytoma was examined with computed tomography (CT) and with positron emission tomography (PET), in the latter case using [68Ga]EDTA, [11C]glucose, and [11C]methionine. The CT examination as well as the [68Ga]EDTA study showed a small tumor located in the region of the head of the left caudate nucleus. The [11C]glucose examination showed increased uptake on the same region, as did the [11C]methionine examination, but the latter also showed a considerable uptake in the entire left thalamic region. The patient died 15 days after the [11C]methionine study and a histologic evaluation of thin sections obtained at autopsy showed excellent agreement between tumor extent and activity distribution after [11C]methionine administration. The tumor tissue seen only with [11C]methionine was histologically different from that part of the tumor observed with the other tracers. Although cytologically similar, the latter showed large necrotic areas and an ability to induce marked endothelial proliferation, whereas in the former neither necroses nor notable endothelial proliferation was seen. In this case more than 50% of the tumor would have remained radiologically imperceptible without the [11C]methionine PET examination.