Observations on the influence of extrauterine life upon renal functional maturation in the human being were made in 49 newborn infants of 25 to 41 weeks' GA during the first 48 hours of life, and in serial studies of 12 of these infants whose GA at birth was less than or equal to 34 weeks. GFR was found to be uniformly low in infants born prior to 34 weeks' GA, and increased rapidly after 34 weeks' GA. Glucosuria was found to occur commonly in infants less than or equal to 30 weeks' GA. Glomerulotubular balance for glucose was noted in every infant studied, regardless of GA or length of time since birth. Mean values for TRP at every age prior to feeding was greater than or equal to 85%, and decreased concomitantly with the rise in serum phosphate concentrations after feedings were introduced. The urinary excretion of alpha amino nitrogen was greatest in infants less than 34 weeks' GA. These studies suggest that renal functional development in the human infant is closely related to conceptional (GA + postnatal age) age, and that the pattern of renal functional development for the premature infant during extrauterine life is similar to that of the fetus in utero of corresponding conceptional age.