Two distinct microsomal pathways involved in the metabolism of thiobenzamide to thiobenzamide S-oxide have been identified and quantitated in the liver and lungs of mice and rats, using a highly inhibitory antibody against NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase. Approximately 50 and 65% of the oxidation in mouse and rat liver microsomes, respectively, was due to the FAD-containing monooxygenase, the remainder being catalyzed by cytochrome P-450. In the mouse lung, S-oxidation was predominantly via the FAD-containing monooxygenase while that in the rat lung was about 60% via the FAD-containing enzyme and 40% via cytochrome P-450. Cytochrome P-450-dependent S-oxidation of thiobenzamide was induced in the liver by treatment of mice with phenobarbital and slightly increased by treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene, while in rat liver either of these treatments caused only a small increase in metabolism due to cytochrome P-450. Thermal inactivation of the FAD-containing monooxygenase left the cytochrome P-450 component essentially unchanged. Thermally treated microsomes had a pH activity profile characteristic of cytochrome P-450 and were less inhibited by methimazole and thiourea when compared to untreated microsomes. Female mouse liver microsomes had a much higher, and female rat liver microsomes a lower, ability to S-oxidize thiobenzamide when compared to the males.