Parenteral aluminum administration in the dog: I. Plasma kinetics, tissue levels, calcium metabolism, and parathyroid hormone

Kidney Int. 1984 Feb;25(2):362-9. doi: 10.1038/ki.1984.25.

Abstract

Aluminum (Al) may cause both osteomalacia and encephalopathy in dialysis patients. Little is known about the biology of Al. This study examined the initial distribution kinetics of Al and its biological effects after injections of 1 mg/kg/day into dogs for 3 to 5 weeks. Following one intravenous dose, the plasma half-life (x +/- SE) was 276 +/- 51.8 min, with an apparent volume of distribution of 1.30 +/- 0.17 liters or 5.90 +/- 0.30% body wt; 10 to 21% of administered Al was excreted in the urine over 150 min, and the renal contribution to plasma clearance of Al correlated with GFR (r = 0.77, P less than 0.05). The total plasma clearance of Al (4.43 +/- 2.83 ml/min) exceeded the renal contribution to plasma clearance (1.94 +/- 0.36 ml/min) in each dog, and in only two instances did the renal contribution reach 50% of total plasma clearance. Serum calcium rose from 9.4 +/- 0.2 to 11.1 +/- 0.3 mg/dl and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) fell by 27 +/- 4% following one Al injection. With repeated Al injections, serum calcium increased from baseline levels of 10.2 +/- 0.07 mg/dl to 11.1 +/- 0.22 and 11.3 +/- 0.46 mg/dl after 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. Renal function declined in all dogs, and serum creatinine exceeded 3.5 mg/dl in four; over the 5 weeks of study, serum calcium correlated with serum creatinine (r = 0.91, P less than 0.001). Liver, kidney, and spleen showed the highest tissue content of Al, and there was substantial uptake by bone; the parathyroid content of Al was modest.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aluminum / administration & dosage
  • Aluminum / metabolism*
  • Aluminum / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Calcium / blood
  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Dogs
  • Edetic Acid / pharmacology
  • Female
  • Hypocalcemia / chemically induced
  • Hypocalcemia / metabolism
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Kinetics
  • Parathyroid Hormone / blood*
  • Phosphorus / blood
  • Time Factors

Substances

  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Phosphorus
  • Edetic Acid
  • Creatinine
  • Aluminum
  • Calcium