The end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) response curves for the flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery were studied in 31 normal subjects with transcranial Doppler techniques. An exponential curve with an exponent of 0.034 mm Hg-1 was found to be a good fit to the recorded data. By means of this relationship, recordings of flow velocity in cerebral arteries can be normalized to a standard value of PCO2. Physiological aspects of cerebrovascular reactivity to PCO2 and the clinical implications of the PCO2 response curve are discussed. The normal material provides a reference for assessing pathological responses.