The production of malondialdehyde (MDA) and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) by platelets following an arachidonic acid (AA) challenge was greater in nephrotic platelet rich plasma (PRP) than in normal PRP. The uptake of 14C-AA, and its subsequent conversion to 14C-TxB2 following a thrombin stimulus, was also greater in nephrotic than normal PRP. Normal plasma diminished the MDA production by nephrotic platelets. The addition of albumin to nephrotic PRP, or, the intravenous infusion of albumin in quantities sufficient to correct hypoalbuminemia also diminished the excessive production of prostaglandin metabolites by nephrotic platelets. The platelet aggregate ratio (PAR), which measures circulating platelet aggregates, was abnormal during the acute phase of nephrotic syndrome but reverted to normal following remission. These data indicate that hypoalbuminemia is associated with increased AA metabolism by platelets and suggest that platelet "hyperactivity" may contribute to the proclivity toward thrombosis observed in nephrotic syndrome.