A new patient with medium-chain dicarboxylic aciduria and suberyl glycinuria during an attack of acute illness is reported. When, inadvertently he was given medium-chain triglycerides for 2 days, the excretion of abnormal metabolites of medium-chain fatty acids increased and hepatomegaly became more pronounced. During remission a low excretion of the metabolites were observed. After 16 h of fasting hypoglycaemia was accompanied by an increase of urinary dicarboxylic acids and psi-hydroxyacids similar to that found on admission. Interestingly this urinary organic acid pattern persisted 8 h after intravenous administration of glucose. In a blood sample obtained after 16 h of fasting there was hypoketonaemia and increased levels of total free fatty acids, octanoic, decanoic and cis-4-decenoic acids. These biochemical data suggest the existence of a deficiency at the level of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.