A prospective randomised study was carried out to compare the effect of mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulphonate sodium) with that of forced diuresis in preventing cyclophosphamide induced haemorrhagic cystitis in marrow transplant recipients. Sixty-one consecutive BMT recipients were randomised for treatment with forced diuresis or mesna. The incidence of macroscopic haematuria was significantly lower in the mesna treated group (chi 2 = 4.03, P less than 0.05). No specific side effects of mesna were detected. The lymphopenia induced by cyclophosphamide in the aplastic recipients was similar in the mesna and forced diuresis groups suggesting that mesna has no effect on the lymphocytotoxic activity of cyclophosphamide, although 6 out of 7 episodes of graft failure documented in the study occurred in mesna treated patients. As a result of this study our present policy is to use mesna in all BMT recipients but to continue careful documentation of the incidence of graft failure.