Three brothers with isolated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency were observed at ages 17, 15, and 10 years. They suffered from severely retarded growth, with a marked retardation in bone maturation. Their serum T4, T3, and TSH levels were low. Serum thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) concentration was normal. No increases in TSH levels were elicited during the TRH test. The other pituitary hormones, adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin hormone, responded normally to stimulation. Thyroxin treatment triggered a growth acceleration. Genetic investigation revealed several instances of small stature on the father's side.