Mortality and survival data for 1,052 Japanese patients with Down syndrome who were born between 1966 and 1975 were analyzed. The survival rate at age 10 was estimated to be about 86%. Mortality in each age group for Down syndrome was elevated over that of the general population. In the survival rate at age 10, there was no significant difference between males and females, but the difference between cases with and without congenital heart disease was highly significant. Using data from this study-for mortality up to age 10-and from the study of institutionalized cases for mortality over age 10, a hypothetical life table was constructed; it shows that the life expectancy at birth for cases with Down syndrome is nearly 50 years.