The clinical experience with 42 patients with pulmonary aspergilloma evaluated at the Vanderbilt University Affliated Hospitals in a 22-year period was reviewed to determine the necessity and advisability of pulmonary resection. Twenty-nine patients (69%) had sustained one or more episodes of gross hemoptysis. Eleven of the 42 patients were treated operatively with lobectomy, wedge resection, or cavernostomy. Five of them had had hemoptysis preoperatively, but in only 1 patient was massive hemoptysis the primary indication for operation. The single death among these 11 patients occurred in the patient undergoing operation for control of massive hemoptysis. Nonoperative treatment was selected in 31 patients because of advanced chronic lung disease. Twenty-four of these 31 patients experienced 41 episodes of gross hemoptysis during observation periods up to 8 years (average, 32 months). Superimposed bacterial infection usually accompanied the episodes of hemoptysis, and medical therapy with bedrest, antibiotics, and postural drainage was successful in controlling the hemorrhage in 40 of the 41 episodes. One patient died from massive hemoptysis. On the basis of this experience, pulmonary resection for aspergilloma in patients with hemoptysis seems rarely indicated.