The improved outcome of small infants who have received intensive care is well documented; however, the mortality and morbidity of infants weighing greater than or equal to 2500 gm who require intensive care have not been emphasized. During a 2-year period these infants accounted for 41% of admissions and 34% of all deaths in our nursery. The most common diagnoses were pulmonary disease (32%), asphyxia (22%), congenital anomalies (18%), infant of diabetic mother (10%), hematologic disease (9%), and infection (4%). Mortality was 11% with 50% of the deaths from lethal malformations, 26% from asphyxia, 13% from infection, and 11% from miscellaneous causes. One half of the deaths were potentially preventable. According to developmental follow-up, over 90% of the survivors were developing normally. Thus, while outcome for survivors is usually good, mortality remains excessively high. This large and understudied group of infants requires increased investigative emphasis.