Characterization of the rat mutant dystonic (dt): a new animal model of dystonia musculorum deformans

J Neurosci. 1984 Aug;4(8):1925-32. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.04-08-01925.1984.


An inherited neurological disorder characterized by sustained twisting movements during waking has been discovered in Sprague-Dawley rats. The mutation follows an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance and has been named dystonic (dt). The rat mutants are indistinguishable from normal littermates in open field behavior and climbing activity prior to postnatal days 9 to 10. Clinical signs begin to appear on day 10 and include twisting of the axial musculature, hyperflexion of the trunk, self-clasping of forelimbs and hindlimbs, and poor placement of the limbs during locomotion. No morphological lesions of neural or non-neural tissues have been observed with routine light microscopy. Dystonic rats demonstrate significantly elevated cerebellar norepinephrine levels, although levels in other terminal fields of the locus ceruleus are similar to those of normal littermates. No differences in the pattern or density of noradrenergic innervation were apparent in cerebellar tissue from dt rats examined with histochemical fluorescence techniques. These mutants were less sensitive than unaffected littermates to the akinesic effects of the dopamine blocker haloperidol. However, striatal dopamine levels were not reliably different from normal in dt rats, and their response to the movement-stimulating effects of apomorphine appeared normal. These findings suggest the presence of biochemical disturbances in the extrapyramidal system of dt rats. The dt rat may provide a useful model for human dystonia musculorum deformans.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aging
  • Animals
  • Apomorphine / pharmacology
  • Brain Chemistry
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dopamine / analysis
  • Dystonia Musculorum Deformans / genetics*
  • Dystonia Musculorum Deformans / physiopathology
  • Haloperidol / pharmacology
  • Motor Activity / drug effects
  • Mutation
  • Norepinephrine / analysis
  • Pedigree
  • Rats
  • Rats, Mutant Strains


  • Haloperidol
  • Apomorphine
  • Dopamine
  • Norepinephrine