Detecting alcoholism. The CAGE questionnaire

JAMA. 1984 Oct 12;252(14):1905-7. doi: 10.1001/jama.252.14.1905.


Four clinical interview questions, the CAGE questions, have proved useful in helping to make a diagnosis of alcoholism. The questions focus on Cutting down, Annoyance by criticism, Guilty feeling, and Eye-openers. The acronym "CAGE" helps the physician to recall the questions. How these questions were identified and their use in clinical and research studies are described.

MeSH terms

  • Alcoholism / diagnosis*
  • Alcoholism / rehabilitation
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Surveys and Questionnaires