The authors present prognostic information on recurrence and survival for resected Stage I lung cancer patients with squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma or large cell carcinoma. The data derive from 392 carefully staged patients and include results from the history and physical examination, preoperative laboratory tests, nature of the surgery, complications, initial pathologic findings following surgical resection, and final pathologic review. A simple multivariate model of recurrence, which is used to classify patients into low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, is based on tumor size and location (T1, T2), histologic type (squamous, nonsquamous/mixed) and nodal status (N0, N1). To model survival, the performance status and the presence of empyema, pneumonia, or wound infection were added to the previous factors. Not all factors associated with increased mortality are associated with increased risk of recurrence, and, in particular, postoperative empyema, pneumonia or wound infections carry an increased risk of death only. Serial measurements of performance status and leukocyte count have the potential for monitoring for increased risk of recurrence and death.