Isolated intact influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) molecules of the N9 subtype have been found to possess hemagglutinin (HA) activity which, at equivalent protein concentration, was fourfold higher than that of isolated hemagglutinin molecules of the H3 subtype. The amino-terminal sequence of the N9 NA is the same as in neuraminidases of the eight other influenza A virus NA subtypes previously reported. Viruses possessing N9 NA therefore have two different HA activities and antibody to either HA or NA alone was incapable of inhibiting hemagglutination by the virus. However, antibody to the HA of an H1N9 virus neutralized its infectivity as effectively as it neutralized H1N1 or H1N2 viruses whose neuraminidases have no HA activity. (Antibodies to N9 NA did not neutralize the infectivity of viruses with N9 neuraminidase). 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid inhibited N9 NA activity but had no effect on the HA activity of the isolated N9 NA. One interpretation of this result would be that the HA and NA activities are located in separate sites. Pronase-released N9 NA heads form crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction studies and preliminary data to 2.9 A establish the space group as cubic, I432 with cell dimension a = 184 A. Data extend to beyond 1.9 A resolution, and these will be collected in the future.