The urinary excretion of albumin was measured in insulin-dependent diabetics under ordinary conditions of life and in response to exercise. Possible mechanisms of exercise induced albuminuria in diabetics were also investigated. Under ordinary conditions of life the insulin-treated diabetics, as a group, had a higher mean urinary albumin excretion than normal controls; however, half of the diabetics had albumin excretion rates within the control range. A given exercise load (600 kpm/min for 20 min) produced an exaggerated albumin excretion in diabetics, particularly evident in the post-exercise period. The elevated urinary albumin excretion was due to an increased transglomerular passage of albumin, not to reduced tubular reabsorption. The increase was not associated with differences in blood pressure or urine flow between controls and diabetics. This exercise test has proved to be a suitable provocation test to unmask abnormalities in the glomerular handling of albumin that might not be recognisable at rest.