The name opsismodysplasia is proposed for a new chondrodysplasia, which was studied in three patients. Clinically, the condition is recognized at birth on the basis of shortness, short hands, and facial abnormalities with a short nose and a depressed bridge of nose. The most characteristic radiographic signs are: very retarded bone maturation; marked shortness of the bones of the hands and of the feet with concave metaphyses; and thin, lamellar vertebral bodies. The growth cartilage studied in one case showed a wide hypertrophic area containing thick connective tissue septa, irregular provisional calcification, and vascular invasion. Type I collagen was detected in the hypertrophic area by immunohistochemical and microchemical tests. The transmission of opsismodysplasia is probably autosomal recessive.