The cellular composition of isolated ecto- and endoderm of the gastric column of Hydra attenuata Pall were recorded qualitatively and quantitatively. The endoderm contains a small population of I-cells ("basal cells") which give rise to the endodermal neurons. The recombination of live ecto- and endoderm, one of which had previously been [3H]thymidine labeled, revealed that the endodermal I-cells and their neural derivatives originate from ectodermal I-cells which migrate across the mesoglea. No other cell types were found to pass from one cell layer to the other. The experiments support the idea that the endodermal gland cells constitute an autoreproductive cell line independent of the pluripotent I-cells.