The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) flurbiprofen caused a rise in parasitaemia in goats infected with Trypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei. All trypanosome-infected goats treated with flurbiprofen showed many dividing trypanosomes. This also included the short-stumpy forms of T. brucei. In T. vivax-infected goats flurbiprofen treatment resulted in 100% mortality in the acute and chronic stages of the infection. The increase in parasitaemia of T. brucei infected goats, treated with flurbiprofen, was not associated with an increase in mortality. The increase in parasitaemia of T. congolense-infected goats, treated with flurbiprofen, tended to be associated with a somewhat higher mortality but this was statistically not significant. The significant rise in parasitaemia could be reproduced in T. brucei-infected sheep without, however, killing the animals. Two other NSAIDs were also studied. Suprofen caused a rise in parasitaemia and 100% mortality when given to goats in the acute stage of T. vivax infection. Results with flunixin meglumine, when tested in T. brucei infected goats, were not conclusive.