In a homogenate of guinea pig hippocampus histamine activated adenylate cyclase and in a hippocampal slice preparation it increased the firing rate of pyramidal cells in the CA3 region. Both activities were apparently mediated by H2 receptors. The concentration of histamine and of the H2 receptor agonist, impromidine, required to stimulate activity was similar in each test preparation with impromidine being about 100-fold more potent than histamine. Moreover, the H2 receptor antagonists, cimetidine and ICIA 5165, each reversed the activation by histamine of the two test preparations, with ICIA 5165 being about 100-fold more potent than cimetidine. Thus, there is a correlation between activation of cyclase and neuronal excitability induced by histamine. These observations support a large body of evidence suggesting that histamine is a neurotransmitter or modulator in the CNS.