Fatty acid intakes were estimated from 7-day weighed-food-intake date and from the analysis of 3-day duplicate food portions in a series of vegans and omnivore controls. Calculated and analysed values for monounsaturated fatty acids, linoleic and linolenic acids were generally in good agreement. Analysed saturated fatty acid intakes tended to be lower in the omnivores than the calculated values. The vegan subjects had very much lower intakes of saturated fatty acids and much higher intakes of linoleic acid compared with the omnivores; these differences were most marked between the men. The vegan diets were devoid of arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower in the male vegans.