Mortality occurring between 1963 and 1980 in a small cohort (N = 71) of Dutch oil-press workers exposed between 1961 and 1969 to aflatoxins primarily via the respiratory route, was assessed and compared to that of a similar group of unexposed workers (N = 67). For the entire period of study, the observed mortalities for total-cancer and respiratory cancer were higher than expected in the aflatoxin-exposed group. Mortality observed in the comparison group was within the expected range. While two deaths in the exposed group were attributed to non-malignant liver disease, no primary liver tumours were observed. The greatest difference between observed and expected mortality was in the period between 1963 and 1968.