The effects of juvenile hormone (JH) and egg development neurosecretory hormone (EDNH) on ovarian ecdysteroid production during vitellogenesis in the autogenous mosquito, Aedes atropalpus, were investigated using in vitro techniques coupled with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Normal females were characterized by quantitative, qualitative, and temporal patterns of in vitro ovarian ecdysteroid production. Females decapitated at emergence showed little ovarian ecdysteroid production and did not undergo vitellogenesis. A 500-ng dose of JH-I applied topically to decapitated females restored normal patterns of ecdysteroid production. In both normal and experimental females, ecdysone constituted the major portion of the ecdysteroids secreted by the ovaries in vitro. However, significant amounts of other RIA-active materials were detected, one of which was probably 20-OH-ecdysone. Fat body incubations indicated that these tissues produce little RIA-active material during the peak of vitellogenesis. During that period, the ovaries were the major source of ecdysteroid. Various doses of JH-I, applied to abdomens isolated at emergence, enhanced ovarian responsiveness to subsequent applications of head extracts containing EDNH both in vivo and in vitro. A 500-ng dose of JH-I, applied topically to blood-fed, decapitated Aedes aegypti, stimulated a significant increase in in vitro ovarian ecdysteroid production. Similarities between these data and those demonstrating prothoracicotropic effects of JH in the Lepidoptera are discussed.