To determine whether vaginal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis in children were associated with sexual contact, 50 children ages 1 to 12 years with a history of sexual contact and 34 children without such a history were studied. Vaginal, throat and rectal cultures for C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were performed in all children. Three children with sexual contact and none of the children without a history of sexual contact had vaginal infections. The three infected children were asymptomatic and only one had had vaginal intercourse. None of the 10 children with a history of sexual contact and gonorrheal vaginitis had C. trachomatis isolated. Although C. trachomatis vaginal infections as detected by vaginal cultures are infrequent, we recommend that all girls being evaluated for sexual contact be routinely cultured for C. trachomatis so that those infected can be treated.