The aim of this investigation was to study complement fixation by normal human kidney tissue. C fixation was assessed on acetone-fixed sections of frozen human kidney. In addition, C consumption following incubation of normal fresh human serum with tubular or glomerular fractions of human kidney was measured. The results are consistent with the interpretation that the brush border of proximal tubules of human kidney activates the C system via the alternative pathway. It is suggested that this activation may occur in vivo in patients with a non-selective proteinuria.