Effects of smoking on the development of female reproductive cancers

J Natl Cancer Inst. 1984 Aug;73(2):371-6. doi: 10.1093/jnci/73.2.371.


The effect of smoking on the development of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancers is evaluated among cases identified between November 1980 and July 1982 in the Iowa Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Cancer Registry. Population-based, age-frequency matched controls were also evaluated, adjusting for potential confounders: Age, age of menarche, age of menopause, duration of menses, female family reproductive cancer history, obesity, parity, infertility, and lifetime steroid hormone use. Logistic regression analyses of total pack-years of cigarette exposure indicate that smoking is not significantly related to the development of breast cancer [relative risk (RR) = .99; confidence interval (CI) = .97, 1.02] or ovarian cancer (RR = 1.00; CI = 1.00, 1.00). Among women with endometrial cancer, the risk for those who smoke is increased among premenopausal women (RR = 1.27; CI = .65, 2.59) and decreased among postmenopausal women (RR = .41; CI = .16, 1.04).

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / physiology
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Breast Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Estrogens / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Menopause
  • Menstruation
  • Middle Aged
  • Ovarian Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Smoking*
  • Uterine Neoplasms / etiology*


  • Estrogens