In previous research the concentration of alpha-MSH within the septal region of rabbits increased with fever. This finding raises the possibility that the septal concentration of this peptide, which reduces fever when given both peripherally and intracerebroventricularly, is important to limitation of fever. To test this idea, rabbits with cannulas in the septal region were made febrile by IV injections of leukocytic pyrogen (LP). Injection of alpha-MSH (1 microgram bilaterally) into the septal region did reduce fever, consistent with the idea that the increase in septal alpha-MSH concentration which occurs naturally in fever limits the febrile response. We also noted late rises in body temperature when experimental and control septal injections were given close together in time. These increases in temperature were similar to those known to occur after injections into the primary temperature control in the PO/AH region. This commonality further strengthens the possibility that septal neurons are important to central modulation of body temperature.