O-Acetylserine sulfhydrylase in cell-free extracts of Rhodospirillum tenue was markedly repressed after growth in the presence of sulfide or thiosulfate, whereas S-sulfocysteine synthase activity remained almost unchanged. Purification on DE52 cellulose resulted in the separation of two proteins: Protein I with a molecular weight of 57000 had O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase activity only, while protein II with a molecular weight of 46000 had S-sulfocysteine synthase activity in addition. The activity of protein II with O-acetylserine plus sulfide was about 1.5 of that with O-acetylserine plus thiosulfate. Protein I from sulfate-grown cells possessed 74% of the total O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase, protein II 26%. Growth with sulfide repressed only the synthesis of protein I, which after separation showed only 19% of the measurable O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase, whereas protein II now possessed 81%. Regulatory and kinetic phenomena of the two activities were studied. In addition to the phototrophic bacteria studied earlier, also Rhodomicrobium vannielii, Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, Rhodocyclus purpureus and Thiocystis violacea were found to contain O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase activities; the latter two species contained S-sulfocysteine synthase activities in addition.