Two spatio-temporal filters in human vision. 2. Selective modification in amblyopia, albinism, and hemianopia

Biol Cybern. 1983;47(3):191-201. doi: 10.1007/BF00337008.


We have used the psychophysical methods described in the first paper of this series (Holliday and Ruddock, 1983) to determine selected spatial and temporal response characteristics of the ST1 and ST2 filters for subjects suffering visual defects. Data are given for 19 amblyopes, an albino and a hemianope, and comparison data are also given for a number of subjects with normal vision. The ST1 spatial responses for both the "normal" and "amblyopic" eyes of 12 convergent strabismic amblyopes are displaced to low spatial frequencies compared to the normal curve, which implies that there is a loss of fine spatial tuning. In all but one subject, the curve for the "amblyopic" eye peaks at a spatial frequency lower than that for the "normal" eye, thus the former deviates further from the normal pattern than the latter. The ST1 spatial responses of 6 refractive amblyopes are also displaced to the low frequency side of the normal curve, although on average the shift is smaller than in the case of the strabismic amblyopes. For each subject, the response curve of the "amblyopic" eye peaks at a lower spatial frequency than does that for the "normal" eye. ST1 spatial responses were measured for targets located up to 30 degrees off-axis along the horizontal meridian and sample data are given for one strabismic and one refractive amblyope and for two normal subjects. It is concluded from these data that the changes in the spatial responses associated with amblyopia do not simply reflect eccentric fixation of the target. The ST2 spatial response was measured for the "normal" and "amblyopic" eyes of 9 amblyopes (7 strabismic and 2 refractive). There is no significant difference between the average amblyopic response and that of normal subjects, and only in one case does the response for an "amblyopic" eye peak at a frequency lower than the peak frequency for normal vision. The ST2 temporal response for 9 amblyopes shows no systematic deviations from the normal response. For the albino, both the ST1 and ST2 spatial responses peak at around 0.3 cycles deg-1, and both curves are displaced considerably to the low spatial frequency side of the normal ST2 spatial response. The albino's ST2 temporal response is essentially normal. Measurements for the hemianope's "blind" hemifield under conditions appropriate to the isolation of the ST1 and ST2 spatial responses reveal no tuning curves. The ST2 temporal response for the "blind" hemifield, however, is of large amplitude, with a peak at 2 Hz, well below the normal frequency response peak. It is argued that the loss of fine spatial tuning which occurs in the ST1, but not the ST2, spatial responses of the amblyopes is consistent with the sequential organisation of these two filter classes proposed by Holliday and Ruddock (1983). Further, for the only two subjects whose ST2 spatial response curves are displaced to abnormally low frequencies (the albino and a strabismic amblyope) the ST1 spatial response is shifted to low spatial frequencies compared to the normal ST2 curve...

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Albinism / physiopathology*
  • Amblyopia / physiopathology*
  • Hemianopsia / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Motion Perception / physiology*
  • Pattern Recognition, Visual / physiology
  • Time Factors
  • Vision, Ocular / physiology*
  • Visual Perception / physiology*