Changes in medical care utilization (rates of hospital admission and days hospitalized) and performance (rates of unauthorized absence and desertion) from pre- to posttreatment for alcohol abuse were determined for a group of career Navy enlisted men. Comparisons were made with two control groups matched with the abusers on year of entering the service and age at enlistment. Treatment favorably affected health and performance during the 2-year posttreatment period. While the alcohol abuse group showed no change in the mean number of hospital admissions from pre- to posttreatment, significant increases were reported for both control groups. Similarly, although rates of unauthorized absence and desertion increased significantly from pre- to posttreatment for alcohol abusers, the increases were proportionately less than those experienced by either control group.