After laboratory evaluation of nontoxic doses of intravitreal antibiotics, 26 cases of bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis were treated by intravitreal antibiotic or vitrectomy. In 46% of all cases, visual acuity was better than 20/100, whereas 27% had light perception to 20/300 visual acuity, 4% had no light perception, and 23% of the cases were enucleated or eviscerated. Best results have been achieved when the treatment began within 36 hours after symptomatic onset of infection and when the organism involved was not to virulent. We advocate intravitreal antibiotics immediately after intracameral and vitreous tap for culture, to be followed by vitrectomy 24 hours later if the culture is positive. In bacterial endophthalamitis when the vitreous is severely involved and in cases of fungal endophthalmitis, we advocate vitrectomy plus intravitreal antibiotics as the primary procedure.