Wistar rats were made hypothyroidic by intraperitoneal thyroxine (T4) injection during the first 10 days of neonatal life. Levels of T4, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin in the blood of these rats were measured by radioimmunoassay. The T4 levels are about two-thirds of control values up to 20 months of age. T3 level is low only at a young age. TSH level shows no significant difference from control, but is about half that of control after the stimulation of secretion by 6-propyl-2-thiouracil. The level of prolactin is much higher in the T4-treated group than in controls. In male rats, life duration of hypothyroid rats was longer than control by about 4 months. The life extension effect of hypothyroidism was observed also in females, although the difference was smaller than that in males. The concentration of T4 in the blood of male rats is higher than females, and the decrease in T4 level by neonatal T4 treatment is also more marked in males.