Connections of the perirhinal cortex in the rat brain were studied using anterograde (3H-proline/leucine) and retrograde (horseradish peroxidase) tracers. The perirhinal cortex receives major projections from medial precentral, anterior cingulate, prelimbic, ventral lateral orbital, ventral and posterior agranular insular, temporal, superior and granular parietal, lateral occipital, agranular retrosplenial, and ectorhinal cortices, and from the presubiculum, subiculum, and diagonal band of Broca. Rostral neocortical areas project predominantly to rostral perirhinal regions while more caudal neocortical and subicular areas project predominantly to caudal perirhinal regions. Terminal fields are further segregated within perirhinal cortex to either the dorsal or ventral banks of the rhinal sulcus. All afferents from frontal areas terminate predominantly in the deep layers of its ventral bank; afferents from temporal, parietal, and lateral occipital areas terminate predominantly in the deep and superficial layers along its dorsal bank; and afferents from ectorhinal cortex terminate in a column within its dorsal bank. Cortical cells which project to perirhinal areas are found predominantly in layer II and the superficial part of layer III. However, ventrolateral orbital, parietal, and lateral occipital cortex projections originate predominantly from layer V. Perirhinal areas also receive afferents from the nucleus reuniens of the thalamus, lateral nucleus of the amygdala, claustrum, supramammillary nuclei, and the dorsal raphe nuclei.