Blindness in Southern Sudan is thought to be highly prevalent due to the high prevalence of onchocerciasis and trachoma. In addition, socioeconomic development in the area has been low and growth slow. Communities in the South have not changed much having been unaffected by modern institutions more prevalent in the North. Traditional methods of farming, fishing and pastoralism still persist. However, even these may be hampered by the large scale presence of blackfly and trachoma. This paper describes one approach to define the prevalence and causes of vision loss in Southern Sudan.