Manganese in infant formulas and learning disability

Ann Nutr Metab. 1983;27(6):488-94. doi: 10.1159/000176724.


The concentration of manganese in the hair of normal newborn infants was found to increase significantly from 0.19 micrograms/g at birth to 0.965 micrograms/g at 6 weeks of age and 0.685 micrograms/g at 4 months when they were fed infant formula. There was an insignificant increase to 0.330 micrograms/g at age 4 months in breast-fed infants. After this age there was a slow decline in hair manganese to 0.268 micrograms/g in normal children at age 8 years and 0.434 in learning disabled (hyperactive) children. This is the third study reporting elevated hair manganese in learning disabled children.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Breast Feeding
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Hair / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Food / analysis*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Learning Disabilities / metabolism*
  • Manganese / analysis*


  • Manganese