Nicotine as a reinforcer in human subjects and laboratory animals

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1983 Dec;19(6):989-92. doi: 10.1016/0091-3057(83)90405-7.


Results are summarized from 17 studies in which intravenous nicotine was evaluated in self-administration paradigms. Six species, ranging from the albino rat to the human, have been tested under a variety of schedules of reinforcement, and as a function of several pharmacologic manipulations. Under certain environmental conditions, it is clear that nicotine can serve as a reinforcer. However, nicotine differs from many other drugs of abuse in that the range of environmental conditions under which it serves as a reinforcer appears to be more restricted.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dogs
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Nicotine / pharmacology*
  • Papio
  • Rats
  • Reinforcement, Psychology*
  • Saimiri
  • Self Administration
  • Species Specificity


  • Nicotine