Rod and cone inputs to bipolar and horizontal cells of the Xenopus retina

Vision Res. 1983;23(11):1251-8. doi: 10.1016/0042-6989(83)90100-1.


This report summarizes some recent studies of the Xenopus retina in which intracellular recordings were made from photoreceptors, horizontal and bipolar cells. The studied cells were identified by injection of Lucifer yellow. Rod spectral sensitivity functions conformed to the density spectrum of a 524 nm pigment, those of cones to that of a 612 nm pigment. Horizontal cell responses reflected both these classes of photoreceptor input. Rod input evoked a slow waveform, with Vmax less than or equal to 18 mV, cone input a faster waveform with Vmax = 30-40 mV. In the mesopic state the horizontal response reflected both waveforms. Rod and cone inputs to the horizontal cells appeared not to act independently, in that a steady weak green background greatly enhanced the response to a superimposed red flash, but not the reverse. A third photoreceptor type (blue-sensitive rod, Y lambda max = 445 nm) provided input to a chromatic bipolar cell which was hyperpolarized by blue light and depolarized by red light. Such chromatic bipolars had broad areas of spatial integration and lacked center-surround organization.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Ocular
  • Animals
  • Dendrites / physiology
  • Evoked Potentials
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Membrane Potentials
  • Neurons / physiology*
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Photoreceptor Cells / physiology*
  • Retina / cytology*
  • Spectrophotometry
  • Xenopus laevis / anatomy & histology*