Sixty-two calcium balance and 47Ca-turnover studies were performed in 51 individuals to evaluate the accuracy and the sensitivity of the methods. The data were analysed according to a modification of the expanding calcium pool model using an improved Bauer-Carlsson-Lindquist (BCL) formulation and an iterative computer procedure. A 7-day whole body retention curve (R1) combined with a retention curve constructed from excretion data alone (R2) was used to estimate dermal calcium loss (d) and to demonstrate the significance of individual corrections for delay in faecal excretion (faecal lag time = delta t). The mean d was 1.58 mmol Ca/day. The introduction of delta t improved the goodness of fit of the data to the model. delta t based on 47Ca-kinetics was superior to a fixed delta t of zero (P less than 0.01) or 2 days (P less than 0.05). The model derived renal calcium excretion rate was highly correlated (r = 0.98, P less than 0.001) to the chemical measured excretion rate. A similar highly significant correlation [RS = 0.78 (Spearman), P less than 0.001] was found between the model derived delta t and the carmine red delta t. These results indicate a high accuracy of the model. The directly measured parameters showed an excellent reproducibility with a coefficient of variation (CV) less than 4%. The reproducibility of the derived parameters was acceptable (CV = 10-20%) except for the balance (CV = 72%).